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Evidence for iPhone

Journal Club

Did COPERNICUS really show that carvedilol was the center of the CHF universe? Was it FACTT that looked at CVP targets in ARDS? Journal Club for iPhone and Android answers these questions by putting landmark trials at your fingertips!

Journal Club for iPhone and Android harness the collaborative editing power of Wiki Journal Club (wikijournalclub.org) to provide you up-to-date summaries of the articles you need to know. Written by medicine physicians, these article summaries are distilled into a thorough but supremely concise bottom line. Read on to flesh out the article's major points, design, interventions, outcomes, and criticisms.

Editorial Staff

Editors-in-Chief

  • Timothy B. Plante, MD MHS (University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine)
  • David J. Iberri, MD (Stanford University)
  • Manuel Lam, MD (Stanford University)

Associate Editors

Cardiology
Shaan Khurshid, MD (Massachusetts General Hospital)
Arun Manmadhan, MD (NYU School of Medicine)
Travis Cohoon, MD (Scripps Clinic)
Emergency Medicine
Jonathan Mailman, BSc, ACPR, PharmD, CD (Saskatchewan Health Authority, Regina Area)
Endocrinology
Jun Ng, MBBS (University of Queensland)
Hematology
Mike Kennah, MD (University of Calgary)
Nirmal Choradia, MD (MedStar Montgomery Medical Center/Georgetown University)
Nephrology
Michael Ke Wang, MD (McMaster University)
Neurology
Lily Zhou, MD (University of British Columbia)
Neurosciences
Alick Wang, MD (McMaster University)
Oncology
Dave Gupta, MD MPH (Emory University)
Benjamin A. Weinberg, MD (Georgetown University/Lombardi Cancer Center)
Pulmonology/Critical Care
Timothy W. Chan, MD (University of Toronto)
Jonathan Ives, PA-C - Fort Worth, Texas

Deputy Editors

Cardiology
Rob Gallo, MD Candidate (Washington University in St. Louis)
General Surgery
Evan Adams, MD candidate (UCLA)
Victoria Archer, MD candidate (McMaster University)
Pulmonology/Critical Care
Kevin Seitz, MD/MSc candidate (Emory University)
Radiology
Alex Marro, MD candidate (University of Toronto)

Contributors

  • Dylan R. Addis, MD (Wake Forest School of Medicine)
  • Samia Baig, PharmD (University of Rhode Island)
  • Ryan Bowersox, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Timothy Chan, MD (University of Toronto )
  • AeRee Choi, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • David Clever, MD/PhD candidate (Ohio State College of Medicine, National Institutes of Health)
  • Lindsey Coval, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Dustin DeMoss, DO (Tulane University)
  • Viet Do, MD (Phoenix VA Medical Center)
  • Amanda Fenstermacher, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Dave R. Gupta, MD MPH (Emory University)
  • Aaron Heller, DO (University of Missouri-Kansas City)
  • Stephanie Horger, PharmD Candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Muhammad Ali Javed, MD FCCP (Mercy Hospital of St. Louis; St. Louis University)
  • Shaan Khurshid, MD (Massachusetts General Hospital)
  • Alexandria King, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Danielle Koch, PharmD Candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Brandon Kohler, PharmD Candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Kimberly Komatsubara, MD (Stanford University Hospital)
  • Daniel S. Longyhore, PharmD, BCACP (Wilkes University, St. Luke's University Hospital)
  • Jonathan Mailman, BSc (Pharm), ACPR, PharmD, RPh (Fraser Health Authority)
  • Arun Manmadhan, MD candidate (NYU School of Medicine)
  • Alex Marro, MD candidate (University of Toronto)
  • John Meriwether, MD (Georgetown University Hospital)
  • Kishan Patel, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Jill Reifsnyder, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Chanu Rhee, MD (Stanford University Hospital)
  • William Richter, MD (Georgetown University Hospital)
  • Jason Scovell, MD candidate (Baylor College of Medicine)
  • Jonathan Seward, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Bethany Sharpless, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Michele Simmons, PharmD (Nebraska Medical Center)
  • Tammy Lisa Sirich, MD (Stanford University Hospital)
  • Colgan "Cole" Sloan, PharmD (University of Arizona Medical Center)
  • Jeremy Sokolove, MD (Stanford University Hospital)
  • Christie Tung, MD (Stanford University Hospital)
  • Michael Ke Wang, MD (McMaster University)
  • Matthew Weir, BSc, MD, MSc
  • Clinton Yoder, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Krista Zawistowski, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Kaitlin Zenz, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Lily Zhou, MD (University of Ottawa)
  • Jun Ng, MBBS (The University of Queensland, Australia)
  • Mark Elliot, MD (University of Saskatchewan)
  • Mark Sutherland, MD (University of Maryland)
  • Mike Kennah, MD (University of Calgary)
  • Kevin Seitz, MD/MSc candidate (Emory University)
  • Jaclyn Werkheiser, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Clyde Ong, MBBS (The University of Queensland, Australia)
  • Nirmal Choradia, MD (MedStar Montgomery Medical Center/Georgetown University)
  • Benjamin A. Weinberg, MD (Georgetown University/Lombardi Cancer Center)
  • James Steigerwalt, PharmD candidate (Wilkes University)
  • Jonathan Ives, PA-C

Acknowledgements

Many thanks to Jason Hom, MD for his PR strategizing genius; the delightful Licínia Iberri for her thoughts on website and app usability; Shanon Peter, MD for brainstorming icon ideas; the Stanford medicine residents who helped with beta testing; and Chris Coderre for his wizardry with the Android app.

Terms of Use

You must read and agree with these terms of use in their entirety before using Journal Club.

While Wiki Journal Club, Journal Club for iPhone, Journal Club for Android, and Peripheral Brain, LLC (entities hereinafter referred to as "Journal Club") strive to provide you with useful and accurate evidence-based information, Journal Club expressly excludes and disclaims all warranties that information contained in this product is 100% up-to-date, complete or accurate.

This product is intended for use only as an educational aid. Because of the likelihood of human error and the rapid changes in the medical literature, you must confirm the information contained in this product through independent sources, including consulting with health care professionals.

Journal Club is, to the extent permitted by law, provided on an "as is" basis without warranties of any kind, express or implied. Journal Club and its affiliates waive any liability or responsibility for damages or injury arising from any information, idea, or instruction contained in this product.

This product does not and cannot replace the clinical judgment and medical decision making that is exercised by a healthcare professional. Journal Club is not intended for use to diagnose or treat a medical condition. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem or condition, please contact a qualified health care professional immediately.

Journal Club encourages its users to email or print the content of this product for educational purposes. Users may not re-post content on other websites without the permission of Journal Club. Users may not re-sell the content of this product to third parties, or prepare derivative works of this content. Permission to reproduce material from Journal Club in another publication or website must be secured in writing via e-mail or regular mail.

Journal Club may modify these terms of use from time to time. You agree to be bound by any modification of these terms, when you use this product, effective after posting. Therefore, it is important that you review these terms regularly to ensure you are updated as to any changes.

By using this product, you indicate your acceptance of these terms of use.

Privacy

Journal Club uses Google Analytics to collect anonymous user data. We occasionally use Bitly redirect links, which similarly captures anonymous user data. The anonymous user data that is collected cannot be used to identify you. The data are multiple and include articles being viewed, mobile device types being used (eg, Nexus 6 or iPhone 6S), mobile device operating system (eg, Android 5.1 or iOS 9.0), and links that are clicked on. We use this information to see trends in article popularity to help guide content development. We also use this information for research projects, under a Johns Hopkins University IRB-approved non-human subjects research protocol, which are published or presented at professional conferences, peer-reviewed medical literature, and in promotional materials. (See Plante TB, 2015 for an example of one such publication.)

At this time, there is no method to opt out of Google Analytics data collection for the iOS app. Users of the Android app can opt out of Google Analytics under Preferences. Users can opt out of Bitly tracking.

Legal Information

Android is a trademark of Google Inc.

Apple, the Apple logo, iPad, iPhone, and iPod touch are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. App Store is a service mark of Apple Inc.

Wiki Journal Club and/or its Journal Club apps (together called "Journal Club") use the following services or software:

TUSafariActivity
Copyright © 2012 ThinkUltimate (http://thinkultimate.com).
http://github.com/davbeck/TUSafariActivity
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
  • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
Reachability
Copyright © 2011-2013, Tony Million.
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
  1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
Bigfoot.js
The MIT License (MIT)
Copyright © 2013-2014 Chris Sauve
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
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THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
SDVersion
The MIT License (MIT)
Copyright © 2014 Sebastian Dobrincu
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
  • The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
Appirater (sans popup notices)
Copyright © 2014 Arash Payan. This library is distributed under the terms of the MIT/X11. (A copy of which is included below.)
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
  • The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
DZNEmptyDataSet
The MIT License (MIT)
Copyright © 2015 Ignacio Romero Zurbuchen iromero@dzen.cl
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  • The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED 'AS IS', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
SBJson Framework
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  • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
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THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE

Abbreviations

6MWT
6-minute walk test
ABG
arterial blood gas
ACE
angiotensin-converting enzyme
ACS
acute coronary syndrome
AF
atrial fibrillation
AKI
acute kidney injury
Alb
albumin
ALND
axillary lymph node dissection
ALT
alanine aminotransferase
ANC
absolute neutrophil count
ARB
angiotensin receptor blocker
ARDS
acute respiratory distress syndrome
ASA
acetylsalicylic acid or aspirin
ASCT
autologous stem cell transplant
AST
aspartate aminotransferase
ATN
acute tubular necrosis
AV
atrioventricular
BAL
bronchoalveolar lavage
BBB
bundle branch block
BID
twice daily
BiV
biventricular
BMI
body mass index
BMS
bare-metal stent
BP
blood pressure
bpm
beats per minute
BSA
body-surface area
BUN
blood urea nitrogen
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft
CAD
coronary artery disease
CBC
complete blood count
CCB
calcium channel blockers
CEA
carotid endarterectomy
CHF
congestive heart failure
CI
cardiac index, confidence interval
CKD
chronic kidney disease
CNS
central nervous system
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Cr
creatinine
CR
complete remission
CrCl
creatinine clearance
CRP
C-reactive protein
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
CT
computer tomogram
CXR
chest x-ray
CV
cardiovascular
DAPT
dual anti-platelet therapy
DES
drug-eluting stent
DIC
disseminated intravascular coagulation
DM
diabetes mellitus
DMARD
disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug
DSM
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
DVT
deep venous thrombosis
ECOG
Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group
ECG
electrocardiogram
EF
ejection fraction
EGDT
early-goal directed therapy
ER
emergency room
ESR
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
ESRD
end-stage renal disease
FEV
forced expiratory volume
FEV1
forced expiratory volume in 1 second
FFP
fresh frozen plasma
FUO
fever of unknown origin
FVC
forced vital capacity
GCS
Glasgow Coma Scale
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease
GFR
glomerular filtration rate
GI
gastrointestinal
GNR
gram negative rods
GPC
gram positive cocci
HbA1c
glycosylated hemoglobin
Hgb
hemoglobin
HCC
hepatocellular carcinoma
Hct
hematocrit
h, hr
hour
HR
hazard ratio, heart rate
HTN
hypertension
HL
hyperlipidemia
IABP
intra-aortic balloon pump
IBD
inflammatory bowel disease
IBW
ideal body weight
ICD
implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
ICH
intracranial hemorrhage
ICU
intensive care unit
ILD
interstitial lung disease
IV
intravenous
IVC
inferior vena cava
IVF
intravenous fluids
LA
left atrium
LABA
long-acting ß-agonist
LAD
left anterior descending artery
LBBB
left bundle branch block
LCx
left circumflex artery
LDH
lactate dehydrogenase
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
LFTs
liver function tests
LLN
lower limit of normal
LMWH
low-molecular weight heparin
LOS
length of stay
LR
likelihood ratio
LV
left ventricle
LVEF
left ventricular ejection fraction
MI
myocardial infarction
m, min
minute
MICU
medical intensive care unit
MDD
major depressive disorder
MDRD
Modification of Diet in Renal Disease
MMSE
mini-mental status examination
MR
mitral regurgitation
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
MRSA
methicillin-resistant S. aureus
MS
mitral stenosis
MUGA
multiple gated acquisition
NNH
number needed to harm
NNT
number needed to treat
NPV
negative predictive value
NS
not significant
NSAID
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NSVT
non-sustained ventricular tachycardia
NYHA
New York Heart Association
OA
osteoarthritis
OAC
oral anticoagulation
OCP
oral contraceptive pill
OMT
optimal medical therapy
PAD
peripheral arterial disease
PCI
percutaneous coronary intervention
PCWP
pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
PE
pulmonary embolism
PEA
pulseless electrical activity
PEEP
positive end-expiratory pressure
Plt
platelet
PO
per os ("by mouth")
PPI
proton pump inhibitors
PPM
permanent pacemaker
PPV
positive predictive value
prn
pro re nata (as needed)
PUD
peptic ulcer disease
OR
odds ratio
q
quaqua ("each" or "every")
QID
four times daily
RA
rheumatoid arthritis, right atrium
RAAS
renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
RAS
renal artery stenosis
RBBB
right bundle branch block
RBC
red blood cell
RCA
right coronary artery
RCT
randomized controlled trial
ROSC
return of spontaneous circulation
RR
relative risk, respiratory rate
RRT
renal replacement therapy
RV
right ventricle
SAH
subarachnoid hemorrhage
SC
subcutaneous
ScvO2
central venous oxygen saturation
SICU
surgical intensive care unit
SLNB
sentinel lymph node biopsy
SVC
superior vena cava
T1DM
type 1 diabetes mellitus
T2DM
type 2 diabetes mellitus
TBI
traumatic brain injury
TCA
tricyclic antidepressant
TIA
transient ischemic attack
TEE
transesophageal echocardiogram
TID
three times daily
TSH
thyroid-stimulating hormone
TTE
transthoracic echocardiogram
TWI
T wave inversions
UA
unstable angina pectoris, urinalysis
ULN
upper limit of normal
UFH
unfractionated heparin
UOP
urine output
V-Q
ventilation-perfusion
VAP
ventilator-associated pneumonia
VF
ventricular fibrillation
VT
ventricular tachycardia
VTE
venous thromboembolism
WBC
white blood cell
LAMA
long-acting muscarinic antagonist
PYH
pack-year history